Jespersen, Otto Negation in English and other languages.

Finally, section 4.3 summarizes the findings in this chapter and evaluates how the noun phrase in DVP indicates the degree of contactinduced restructuring that Portuguese underwent in this region of Angola. Secondly, while the replacement of este by esse is commonly heard in Dundo in the speech of L2 speakers of Portuguese, very few examples were actually recorded in the corpus, which makes it difficult to evaluate whether this phenomenon is generalized or limited to some syntactic contexts. INF Sim. It makes me remind someone who I knew. (Cuesta and Luz 1971: ) 12 Implicit in these words is the homogeneity of the Portuguese language. 93 Ela {i.e. Inf18 31 Fala quioco fluentemente. Chavagne (ibid.) Therefore the number of two-way borrowings is increasing, and there is a clearly diglossic situation 1 in coastal areas and towns. DOC: 555 O quê, o tornar-se professor?

Hence, the deletion of the infinitive marker seems to be characteristic of the speech of younger speakers, both educated and uneducated, as shown in (246a), (247a) and (248a) above, whereas the addition of a paragogic vowel seems to be the preferred strategy in the speech of older uneducated speakers, as in (249) and (250), even if instances of infinitive marker deletion can also be found in the verbal production of these speakers, as in (54a) above. They are sometimes called concordial classes; they include grammaticalized gender systems of the Indo-European type. 313 Ah, assim é bom! Barbosa, Adriano Folclore Angolano: cinquenta contos quiocos - texto bilingue. These are summarized in Table 33 below, which also includes information about whether these tendencies have been attested in other varieties of AVP and what their relation is to sociolinguistic factors such as the age and level of instruction of the DVP speakers. a cyclic weakening and simultaneous reinforment (i.e. La langue portugaise corrompue s y est conservée jusqu à présent, produit un jargon ou langue franque que presque tout le peuple entend, parle, de sort que ceux que savent le portugais, n ont pas besoin d interprète.

As noted by Nurse (2008: 37) when they co-occur they tend to do so in a canonical (neutral) order (e.g. It should be noted that the syntactic behavior of prepositions in the vernacular Portuguese spoken in Angola has already been studied in detail by Cabral (2005). The preposition that is most frequently replaced in AVP is a (ibid. In fact, according to my informants, people are expected to speak Portuguese when they are in the city, although older and less educated speakers often do not and tend to use either Cokwe (or another Bantu language) or what Informant 7 (cf. 146 Quem conseguiri levá mais longe ganha, 147 quem desistí prime(i)ro perde" 148 *Intão, o... o filho, o gigante, pegou no tronco e levou-o. Twenty students took the exam. This period was also characterized by the organization of geo-military expeditions to regions in the interior where conflicts were likely to erupt when the Portuguese tried to establish a firmer hold there.

The collection of more data on negation marking strategies in DVP would therefore be an important contribution to our evaluation of the role played by African languages in the restructuring of Portuguese in both Brazil and Angola Resumptive negation Wouden (1994: 150), in analyzing Jespersen s (1917) examples of resumptive negation, identified three major subtypes: the not in my life sub-type, in which the appendix consists of a copy or a variant of a negative constituent of the sentence ; the not even sub-type, in which the negated sentence is followed by something headed by not even (or its counterpart in other languages) ; and the neither sub-type, in which the negated sentence is followed by an appendix headed by the conjunct neither or its counterparts (Wouden 1994: 150). Winford, Donald 'Introduction: on the structure and status of pidgins and creoles'.

159 Outra vez o nome. # DOC 280 #1 Mas como é que vocês fazem isso depois com a escola? 172 Se ele fosse da Lunda Norti -- Section 4 mundele vs. tchindeli DOC como é que vocês chamam os portugueses? In some instances, like in example (275a) below, the same speaker uses both the abbreviated and the full form of the 1PL marker (i.e. INF Sim, ando. DOC 25 Ah! INF9 31 ^M. Lyon: Université Lumière Lyon 2 Unpublished PhD dissertation (Retrieved July 7 th 2007 from the World Wide Web at &dn=1. DOC 242 (Es)tão a treinar no campo?

the ratio was, in the first three decades of the 20 th century, unfavourable to mestiços. 209 *Intão ele chegou lá, viu o unicórnio, 210 (es)tava atrás de uma árvore.

Concerning aspect, the most common categories are perfective, imperfective, progressive, habitual, anterior (also called perfect ) and persistive. [pause] 48 O que é que fazes mais? (1994: 158) note that in Inuit the future marker ssa signals past habitual when it is used in a past narrative context. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Object marking and morphosyntactic variation in Bantu. In: African languages, ed. 258 ^IGC 259 ^I? Our children will not do that. Away from speaker este estes esta estas isto this/these II. I simply asked because I'm curious if it was a cultural thing.

152 Vocês querem ser uma coisa que ganhem dinheiro Diz o teu nome agora. [Chorus] INF3 33 A nível nacional aqui na nossa Angola, nós temos que isso se pratica mais nos bair(r)o como aqui o coiso disse. This is followed by borrowing of substrate features, but due to continued contact with the lexifier source language secondary leveling occurs, leading to the loss of 47 Building on the work of early creolists such as Coelho (1880:43-4; 1886:160,170) and Schuchardt (1888:67), the theory was first discussed by Holm under the name semi-creolization. feminine vs. feminine), rather the gender value of a noun in EP is lexically determined according to a predominantly semantic criterion, i.e. 8 Depois começa a ir até aí.

Inf16 98 Mmm sim DOC 99 Sim. In places where Portuguese-based creoles developed, or in places where no widespread creoles developed but which were also characterized by the displacement of the substrate speakers, the lack of a common language and an even greater restriction of access to the target language, the most simplified strategy was favored as the privileged means to mark the infinitive, i.e.

Some languages express individual tenses or aspects by a combination of morphemes at TA marker and FV. DOC: 974 Que realmente querem... mas o problema sabe que entra toda a gente. The duration of each interview varies greatly, ranging from one to fifty-two minutes.

Martins, João Vicente Elementos de Gramática Utchokwe.

O português em Angola 946 por não ser... por ser a nossa segunda língua, 947 as dificuldades continuam e a professora está ver na sala. L1 is Cokwe.

Evreux: Nathan.

In fact, while they all have native knowledge of at least one Bantu language, their degree of proficiency in Portuguese varies considerably depending on their age and level of instruction. 298 Umm humm. DOC 6 Porque a mim disseram-me, XXV, 381 APPENDIX III: LINGUISTIC CORPUS SAMPLE 7 eu tenho uma amiga angolana que vive em Portugal, 8 e ela disse que eu quando chegasse cá que me iam chamar mundele +[lex=bantu]. LXV, 421 APPENDIX III: LINGUISTIC CORPUS SAMPLE INF Eu não.

This rearrangement may crystallize and lead to the development of new languages such as pidgins and creoles. A Leste de Loanda. Inf16 5 ^D.

E Agora? 282 De manhã? INF4 38 Sim. 2 All EP examples for which no source is given are my own. photo and video), and after having looked at the recorder with suspicion, the boys ask to be interviewed.

Inf Não, anda *curtivari {i.e. Essas coisas de gravatas. Inf18 10 Mãe, ^R. # 316 Eu também. Summary Speakers introduce themselves and then sing "Boi da cara preta", a Brazilian popular song they learned on a Brazilian TV show. INF Porque gosto de defender. However, the most important factor in the decline of the communities in the south was the fact that, in the 1860s, after Sá da Bandeira left the presidency of the Concelho Ultramarino following strong opposition to his policy from the governors in Angola and politicians in the metropolis, the official Portuguese attitude towards these communities changed once again. As far as the sociolinguistic setting is concerned, Vansina (2001) argues that in the interior the use of Portuguese as a lingua franca expanded among chiefs and traders essentially because reading and writing was useful to establish political rights, to secure inheritances by written wills, and to claim or object to claims concerning trading matters (ibid. INF3 232 Eu. Eu é que vou falar com o João I am the one who will talk to João ; Tu é que vais falar com o João You are the one who will talk to João ; Ele é que vai falar com o João He is the one who will talk to João. Vansina s hypothesis is corroborated by the American missionary Heli Chatelain, who states in the introduction to his compilation of Kimbundu folk-tales that he was compelled to master Portuguese, which in Angola is indispensable for dealing with the educated classes, and is always of utility in the intercourse with the common natives (Chatelain 1894 [2001]: v). É meramente individual: exemplifica-nos a fase inicial, e o primeiro contacto, que pode preparar o advento do crioulo [...] consiste na algaraviada ocasional das tribos que, resistindo à assimilação, mantêm intactos os seus padrões culturais, inclusive, é claro a própria língua. INF5 150 [smile] DOC 151 Então, por isso é que eu sei essas coisas todas. INF10 48 (???)

LXX, 436 APPENDIX III: LINGUISTIC CORPUS SAMPLE Inf É. DOC 203 #1 Aqui em casa-- # Inf #2 -- aqui em casa do ^KD # DOC 205 Ah! PL) of the noun phrase in DVP. Lucchesi, Dante A variação na concordância de género em uma comunidade de fala afrobrasileira. 143, 159 CHAPTER 4 CONTACT-INDUCED TENDENCIES IN DVP S NOUN PHRASE noun class system, depicting 19 individual noun classes, 6 of which can occur as single classes, and 11 noun class pairings.

Nineteenth-century grammars and dictionaries are also not of much help in describing AVP. 10 and 11) and which are still present in L2 DVP.

151) Heintze s description of the linguistic skills of the Afro-Portuguese who lived in the Lunda are particularly interesting when compared to the descriptions provided by other authors concerning the Portuguese spoken by Afro-Portuguese traders in interior Angola (e.g. 131.

Coimbra: Coimbra Editora História da língua portuguesa.

# DOC1 143 #2 Tam(b)ém tem filhos?

[Chorus] Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. DOC: 496 Ou seja, então os nomes próprios não são, bom, 497 são não nome de família, 498 mas estão ligados com o nascimento, 499 com o contexto em que a pessoa nasceu. 47 Digam adeus.